Trade & Mutual Consent (Ahadith 1759 - 1761)


يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَلَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَـطِلِ إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَـرَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنْكُمْ 

"O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent." [An-Nisaa: 29]

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 264:
Narrated Ibrahim bin Sad from his father from his grand-father:
Abdur Rahman bin Auf (radiallaahu `anhu) said, "When we came to Medina as emigrants, Allah's Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) established a bond of brotherhood between me and Sad bin Ar-Rabi' (radiallaahu `anhu). Sad bin Ar-Rabi' (radiallaahu `anhu) said (to me), 'I am the richest among the Ansar, so I will give you half of my wealth and you may look at my two wives and whichever of the two you may choose I will divorce her, and when she has completed the prescribed period (before marriage) you may marry her.' Abdur-Rahman (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, "I am not in need of all that. Is there any market-place where trade is practiced?' He replied, "The market of Qainuqa." Abdur-Rahman (radiallaahu `anhu) went to that market the following day and brought some dried butter-milk (yogurt) and butter, and then he continued going there regularly. Few days later, 'Abdur Rahman (radiallaahu `anhu) came having traces of yellow (scent) on his body. Allah's Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him whether he had got married. He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, 'Whom have you married?' He replied, 'A woman from the Ansar.' Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, 'How much did you pay her?' He replied, '(I gave her) a gold piece equal in weigh to a date stone (or a date stone of gold)! The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, 'Give a Walima (wedding banquet) even if with one sheep .'"

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 265:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
When Abdur-Rahman bin Auf (radiallaahu `anhu) came to Medina, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) established a bond of brotherhood between him and Sad bin Ar-Rabi al-Ansari (radiallaahu `anhu). Sad was a rich man, so he said to 'Abdur-Rahman (radiallaahu `anhu), "I will give you half of my property and will help you marry." 'Abdur-Rahman (radiallaahu `anhu) said (to him), "May Allah bless you in your family and property. Show me the market." So 'Abdur-Rahman (radiallaahu `anhu) did not return from the market) till he gained some dried buttermilk (yoghurt) and butter (through trading). He brought that to his house-hold. We stayed for some-time (or as long as Allah wished), and then Abdur-Rahman (radiallaahu `anhu) came, scented with yellowish perfume. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him) "What is this?" He replied, "I got married to an Ansari woman." The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, "What did you pay her?" He replied, "A gold stone or gold equal to the weight of a date stone." The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), "Give a wedding banquet even if with one sheep."
There's barakah (blessing) in trade. It wasn't unlawful for `Abdur Rahman ibn `Awf (radiallaahu `anhu) to accept Sa`d ibn Rabi` (radiallaahu `anhu)'s offer since they were bound by the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) himself in the bond of brotherhood, but he wanted to work his way up instead of accepting help. So Allah put blessing in his efforts and soon after, he was able to marry an Ansari woman giving her a good mahr (dowry) and arrange a walima.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 266:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
'Ukaz, Majanna and Dhul-Majaz were market-places in the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance. When Islam came, Muslims felt that marketing there might be a sin. So, the Divine Inspiration came: "There is no harm for you to seek the bounty of your Lord (in the seasons of Hajj)." (2.198) Ibn 'Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) recited the Verse in this way.
In the tafsir of ayah 29 of Surah an-Nisaa (quoted above), Ibn Kathir says:
Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, prohibits His believing servants from illegally acquiring each other's property using various dishonest methods such as Riba, gambling and other wicked methods that appear to be legal, but Allah knows that, in reality, those involved seek to deal in interest. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on a man who buys a garment, saying that if he likes it he will keep it, or he will return it along with an extra Dirham, "This is what Allah meant, when He said,

﴿وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَلَكُمْ بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ﴾

(Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly.'') `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "When Allah sent down,

﴿يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَلَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَـطِلِ﴾

(O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly) some Muslims said, `Allah has forbidden us from eating up each other's property unjustly, and food is our best property. Therefore, none among us is allowed to eat from anyone else's food.' After that Allah sent down,

﴿لَّيْسَ عَلَى الاٌّعْمَى حَرَجٌ﴾

(There is no restriction on the blind) (until the end of the Ayah). ﴿24:61﴾.''' Qatadah said similarly. Allah's statement,

﴿إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَـرَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنْكُمْ﴾

(except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent.) means, do not revert to illegal ways and means to acquire money. However, there is no harm in commercial transactions that transpire between the buyer and the seller with mutual consent, so that money is legally earned from these transactions. Mujahid said that,

﴿إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَـرَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنْكُمْ﴾

(except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent.) means, "By selling and buying, or giving someone a gift.'' Ibn Jarir recorded this statement.

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