Salam,
Bismillah.

Volume 1, Book 12, Number 741:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
The Prophet recited aloud in the prayers in which he was ordered to do so and quietly in the prayers in which he was ordered to do so. "And your Lord is not forgetful." "Verily there was a good example for you in the ways of the Prophet."

Volume 1, Book 12, Number 742:
Narrated Abu Wa'il:
A man came to Ibn Mas'ud and said, "I recited the Mufassal (Suras) at night in one Rak'a." Ibn Mas'ud said, "This recitation is (too quick) like the recitation of poetry. I know the identical Suras which the Prophet used to recite in pairs." Ibn Mas'ud then mentioned 20 Mufassal Suras including two Suras from the family of (i.e. those verses which begin with) AL, HA, MIM (which the Prophet used to recite) in each Rak'a.

Volume 1, Book 12, Number 743:
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada:
My father said, "The Prophet uses to recite Al-Fatiha followed by another Sura in the first two Rakat of the prayer and used to recite only Al-Fatiha in the last two Rakat of the Zuhr prayer. Sometimes a verse or so was audible and he used to prolong the first Rak'a more than the second and used to do the same in the 'Asr and Fajr prayers."

 Volume 1, Book 12, Number 744:
Narrated Abu Ma'mar:
We said to Khabbab "Did Allah's Apostle used to recite in Zuhr and 'Asr prayers?" He replied in the affirmative. We said, "How did you come to know about it?" He said, "By the movement of his beard."

Volume 1, Book 12, Number 745:
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada:
My father said, "The Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha along with another Sura in the first two Rakat of the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers. A verse or so was audible at times and he used to prolong the first Rak'a."

Volume 1, Book 12, Number 746:
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada:
My father said, "The Prophet used to prolong the first Rak'a of the Zuhr prayer and shorten the second one and used to do the same in the Fajr prayer."
  • Fajr, Maghrib and `Ishaa' are the jahri prayers. Prophet (SAW) used to recite aloud in them (in congregation). Dhuhr and `Asr are the sirri prayers. Prophet (SAW) used to recite slowly or 'silently' in them. Read more on it here.
  • Reciting Mufassal Surahs (from Surah Qaf onwards) in `Ishaa' is Sunnah.
  • Reciting Surah al-Fatihah in each rak`ah of every Salah is of the utmost importance. More on it here.
  • Lips should move while reciting 'silently'. Also, first rak`ah of prayer is the longest. Details here.
Wassalam.